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read_string(+Stream, +SepChars, +PadChars, -Separator, -String)

Reads a string from the stream Stream up to a delimiter.
Stream handle or alias (atom)
String (set of characters) or atom
String (set of characters)
Variable or integer character code
Variable or string


A string of characters is read from the input stream Stream, up to a delimiter, ignoring any padding around the data. More precisely, the predicate performs the following steps:

     * Skip all characters that match one of the PadChars.
     * Read up to a character that matches one of SepChars or end of file.
     * Discard trailing characters that match one of the PadChars
       from the collected input.
     * Unify String with a string created from the input, and Separator
       with the code of the actual separator character consumed (or -1
       if the input was terminated by the end of the stream).
Both SepChars and PadChars are strings which are interpreted as sets of characters. I.e. any character that occurs in SepChars is a separator, and any character that occurs in PadChars is a padding character. In addition, two symbolic SepChars can be specified (as atoms):
    end_of_line   a LF or CR/LF sequence (returned Separator is LF (10))
    end_of_file   the end of the file/input (returned Separator is -1)
End of file always acts like a delimiter, therefore end_of_file means the same as the empty Separator string.

Once the predicate has returned a Separator of -1, the stream's end of file has been consumed and subsequent reading attempts raise the error 'Trying to read past the end of the stream' (198). This can be changed by setting the stream's eof_action property to 'reset' (e.g. during open/4), in which case the predicate will return empty strings and a Separator of -1 indefinitely.

Note: This predicate provides functionality similar to split_string/4, except that SepChars and PadChars must not be partially overlapping (as this would require lookahead and could cause unexpected blocking read).

Modes and Determinism


(4) instantiation fault
Stream, SepChars or PadChars is not instantiated.
(5) type error
SepChars is not a string or atom.
(5) type error
PadChars is not a string.
(6) out of range
SepChars is an atom but not a valid symbolic delimiter.
(5) type error
Stream is not an atom or handle.
(192) illegal stream mode
Stream is not an input stream.
(193) illegal stream specification
Stream is an illegal stream specification.
(198) reading past the file end
Trying to read past the end of the stream.


    % read one line from the input stream
    ?- read_string(input, end_of_line, "", End, String).
     hello world!

    End = 10
    String = "hello world!"
    Yes (0.00s cpu)

    % read input until end of file
    ?- read_string(input, end_of_file, "", End, String).
    End = -1
    String = "abc\ndef\n"
    Yes (0.00s cpu)

    % Separators and padding
    ?- read_string(input, ",;", ".", Sep1, String1),
       read_string(input, ",;", ".", Sep2, String2),
       read_string(input, ",;", ".", Sep3, String3).
    Sep1 = 59
    String1 = "abc...def"
    Sep2 = 44
    String2 = ""
    Sep3 = -1
    String3 = "ghi...\n"
    Yes (0.00s cpu)

% Code example: read lines from a file and return
% a list of strings, each string containing a line

    get_lines(File, Lines) :-
        open(File, read, S),
	    read_string(S, end_of_line, "", Sep, Line)

See Also

read_string / 4, read_token / 2, read_token / 3, open / 3, open / 4