*IterationSpecs*- a comma-separated sequence of iteration specifiers
*Goal*- a goal (atom or compound term)

A do-loop corresponds to a call to an auxiliary recursive predicate of the form

do__n(...) :- !. do__n(...) :- Goals, do__n(...).IterationSpecs specifies the termination condition, and what is being iterated over. It can be one (or a combination) of the following:

**fromto(First,In,Out,Last)**- iterate Goals starting with In=First until Out=Last. In and Out are local loop variables. For all but the first iteration, the value of In is the same as the value of Out in the previous iteration.
**foreach(X,List)**- iterate Goals with X ranging over all elements of List. X is a local loop variable. Can also be used for constructing a list.
**foreacharg(X,StructOrArray)**- iterate Goals with X ranging over all arguments of StructOrArray. X is a local loop variable. Cannot be used for constructing a term.
**foreacharg(X,StructOrArray,Idx)**- same as before, but Idx is set to the argument position of X in StructOrArray, i.e. arg(Idx, StructOrArray, X) is true. X and Idx are local loop variables.
**foreachelem(X,Array)**- like foreacharg/2, but iterates over all elements of an array of arbitrary dimension. The order is the natural order, i.e. if Array = []([](a, b, c), [](d, e, f)), then for successive iterations X is bound in turn to a, b, c, d, e and f. Ragged arrays (where sub-arrays are of non-uniform length) are allowed and handled correctly. Array may be the empty array [] which leads to zero iterations. Opposed to that, occurrences of [] within the multidimensional array are treated as ordinary array elements. X is a local loop variable. Cannot be used for constructing an array!
**foreachelem(X,Array,Idx)**- same as before, but Idx is set to the index position of X in Array, i.e. subscript(Array, Idx, X) is true. X and Idx are local loop variables.
**foreachindex(Idx,Array)**- like foreachelem/3, but returns just the index position and not the element. Idx is a local loop variable.
**for(I,MinExpr,MaxExpr)**- iterate Goals with I ranging over integers from MinExpr to MaxExpr. I is a local loop variable. MinExpr and MaxExpr can be arithmetic expressions. Can be used only for controlling iteration, i.e. MaxExpr cannot be uninstantiated.
**for(I,MinExpr,MaxExpr,Increment)**- same as before, but an integer or integer expression Increment can be specified (it defaults to 1).
**multifor(List,MinList,MaxList)**- like for/3, but allows iteration over multiple indices (saves writing nested loops). Each element of List takes a value between the corresponding elements in MinList and MaxList. Successive iterations go through the possible combinations of values for List in lexicographic order. List is a local loop variable. MinList and MaxList must be either lists of arithmetic expressions evaluating to integers, or arithmetic expressions evaluating to integers (in the latter case they are treated as lists containing the (evaluated) integer repeated an appropriate number of times). If none of List, MinList and MaxList is a list of fixed length at compile time then either MinList or MaxList must be a list of fixed length at call time (so that it is known how many indices are to be iterated). All lists must be the same length and must not be empty.
**multifor(List,MinList,MaxList,IncrementList)**- same as before, but IncrementList can be specified (i.e. how much to increment each element of List by). IncrementList must be either a list of arithmetic expressions evaluating to non-zero integers, or an arithmetic expression evaluating to a non-zero integer (in which case all elements are incremented by this amount). IncrementList defaults to 1.
**count(I,Min,Max)**- iterate Goals with I ranging over integers from Min up to Max. I is a local loop variable. Can be used for controlling iteration as well as counting, i.e. Max can be a uninstantiated.
**param(Var1,Var2,...)**- for declaring variables in Goals as global, i.e. as shared with the loop context and shared among all iterations of the loop. CAUTION: By default, variables in Goals have local scope, which means that in every iteration these variables are new (even if a variable of the same name occurs outside the do-construct).
**loop_name(Name)**- This specifier does not affect the semantics of the loop. It allows to give the loop a name, mainly for debugging purposes. Name must be an atom, and is used as the name of the auxiliary predicate into which the loop may be compiled. The name should therefore not clash with other predicate names in the same module.

There are three ways to combine the above specifiers in a single do loop:

**IterSpec1, IterSpec2**("synchronous iteration")-
This is the normal way to combine iteration specifiers: simply
provide a comma-separated sequence of them. The specifiers are
iterated synchronously; that is, they all take their first "value"
for the first execution of Goals, their second "value" for the
second execution of Goals, etc. The order in which they are written
does not matter, and the set of local loop variables is the
union of those of IterSpec1 and IterSpec2.
When multiple iteration specifiers are given in this way, typically
not all of them will impose a termination condition on the loop
(e.g.
**foreach**with an uninstantiated list and**count**with an uninstantiated maximum do not impose a termination condition), but at least one of them should do so. If several specifiers impose termination conditions, then these conditions must coincide, i.e. specify the same number of iterations. **IterSpec1 * IterSpec2**("cross product")- This iterates over the cross product of IterSpec1 and IterSpec2. The sequence of iteration is to iterate IterSpec2 completely for a given "value" of IterSpec1 before doing the same with the next "value" of IterSpec1, and so on. The set of local loop variables is the union of those of IterSpec1 and IterSpec2.
**IterSpec1 >> IterSpec2**("nested iteration")-
Like ( IterSpec1 do ( IterSpec2 do Goals ) ), including with respect
to scoping. The local loop variables are those of IterSpec2; in
particular, those of IterSpec1 are not available unless IterSpec2
passes them through, e.g. using a
**param**. Similarly, the only "external" variables available as inputs to IterSpec2 are the locals of IterSpec1; variables from outside the loop are not available unless passed through by IterSpec1, e.g. using a**param**.

Syntax: The do-operator binds like the semicolon, i.e. less than comma. That means that the whole do-construct should always be parenthesised.

Do-loops can be used as a control structure in grammar rules as well: A do-loop in a grammar rule context will generate (or parse) the concatenation of the lists of symbols generated (or parsed) by each loop iteration (the grammar rule transformation effectively adds a hidden fromto-iterator to a do-loop).

Cuts in the loop body only have a local effect, i.e. they do not cut through the loop.

Unless you use :-pragma(noexpand) or the compiler's expand_goals:off option, the do-construct is compiled into an efficient auxiliary predicate. By default, the name of this predicate is do__nnn (where nnn is a unique integer), unless you have explicitly specified a name using the loop_name(Name) specifier.

*(4) instantiation fault*- IterationSpecs insufficiently instantiated
*(123) illegal iteration specifier in do-loop*- Ill-formed IterationSpecs

% iterate over list ?- (foreach(X,[1,2,3]) do writeln(X)). % maplist (construct a new list from an existing list) ?- (foreach(X,[1,2,3]), foreach(Y,List) do Y is X+3). % sumlist ?- (foreach(X,[1,2,3]), fromto(0,In,Out,Sum) do Out is In+X). % reverse list ?- (foreach(X,[1,2,3]), fromto([],In,Out,Rev) do Out=[X|In]). % reverse list (even shorter) ?- (foreach(X,[1,2,3]), fromto([],In,[X|In],Rev) do true). % iterate over integers from 1 up to 5 ?- (for(I,1,5) do writeln(I)). % iterate over integers from 1 up to 5 ?- (count(I,1,5) do writeln(I)). % iterate over integers from 5 down to 1 ?- (for(I,5,1,-1) do writeln(I)). % make list of integers [1,2,3,4,5] ?- (for(I,1,5), foreach(I,List) do true). % make a list of length 3 ?- (foreach(_,List), for(_,1,3) do true). % get the length of a list ?- (foreach(_,[a,b,c]), count(_,1,N) do true). % actually, the length/2 builtin is (almost) length(List, N) :- (foreach(_,List), count(_,1,N) do true). % iterate [I,J] over [1,1], [1,2], [1,3], [2,1], ..., [3,3]: ?- (multifor([I,J],1,3) do writeln([I,J])). % similar, but have different start/stop values for I and J: ?- (multifor([I,J], [2,1], [4,5]) do writeln([I,J])). % similar, but only do odd values for the second variable: ?- (multifor(List, [2,1], [4,5], [1,2]) do writeln(List)). % filter list elements ?- (foreach(X,[5,3,8,1,4,6]), fromto(List,Out,In,[]) do X>3 -> Out=[X|In] ; Out=In). % iterate over structure arguments ?- (foreacharg(X,s(a,b,c,d,e)) do writeln(X)). % collect arguments in a list % (bad example, use =.. if you really want to do that!) ?- (foreacharg(X,s(a,b,c,d,e)), foreach(X,List) do true). % collect arguments reverse ?- (foreacharg(X,s(a,b,c,d,e)), fromto([],In,[X|In],List) do true). % or like this: ?- S = s(a,b,c,d,e), functor(S, _, N), (for(I,N,1,-1), foreach(A,List), param(S) do arg(I,S,A)). % rotate arguments in a struct ?- S0 = s(a,b,c,d,e), functor(S0, F, N), functor(S1, F, N), ( foreacharg(X,S0,I), param(S1, N) do I1 is (I mod N)+1, arg(I1,S1,X) ). % flatten an array into a list ?- (foreachelem(X,[]([](5,1,2),[](3,3,2))), foreach(X,List) do true). % transpose a 2D array ?- A = []([](5,1,2),[](3,3,2)), dim(A, [R,C]), dim(T, [C,R]), ( foreachelem(X,A,[I,J]), param(T) do subscript(T, [J,I], X) ). % same, using foreachindex ?- A = []([](5,1,2),[](3,3,2)), dim(A, [R,C]), dim(T, [C,R]), ( foreachindex([I,J],A), param(A, T) do subscript(A, [I,J], X), subscript(T, [J,I], X) ). % The following two are equivalent ?- (foreach(X,[1,2,3]) do writeln(X)). ?- (fromto([1,2,3],In,Out,[]) do In=[X|Out], writeln(X)). % The following two are equivalent ?- (count(I,1,5) do writeln(I)). ?- (fromto(0,I0,I,5) do I is I0+1, writeln(I)). % Some examples for nested loops. Print all pairs of list elements: ?- Xs = [1,2,3,4], ( foreach(X, Xs), param(Xs) do ( foreach(Y,Xs), param(X) do writeln(X-Y) ) ). % or using the product combinator: ?- Xs = [1,2,3,4], ( foreach(X, Xs) * foreach(Y, Xs) do writeln(X-Y) ). % and the same without symmetries: ?- Xs = [1,2,3,4], ( fromto(Xs, [X|Xs1], Xs1, []) do ( foreach(Y,Xs1), param(X) do writeln(X-Y) ) ). % or using the nesting combinator: ?- Xs = [1,2,3,4], ( fromto(Xs, [X|Xs1], Xs1, []) >> ( foreach(Y,Xs1), param(X) ) do writeln(X-Y) ). % Find all pairs of list elements and collect them in a result list: pairs(Xs, Ys, Zs) :- ( foreach(X,Xs), fromto(Zs, Zs4, Zs1, []), param(Ys) do ( foreach(Y,Ys), fromto(Zs4, Zs3, Zs2, Zs1), param(X) do Zs3 = [X-Y|Zs2] ) ). % or pairs(Xs, Ys, Zs) :- ( foreach(X, Xs) * foreach(Y, Ys), foreach(Z, Zs) do Z = X-Y ). % Flatten a 2-dimensional matrix into a list: flatten_matrix(Mat, Xs) :- dim(Mat, [M,N]), ( for(I,1,M), fromto(Xs, Xs4, Xs1, []), param(Mat,N) do ( for(J,1,N), fromto(Xs4, [X|Xs2], Xs2, Xs1), param(Mat,I) do subscript(Mat, [I,J], X) ) ). % Same using * to avoid nesting: flatten_matrix(Mat, Xs) :- dim(Mat, [M,N]), ( for(I, 1, M) * for(J, 1, N), foreach(X, Xs), param(Mat) do subscript(Mat, [I,J], X) ). % Same using multifor to avoid nesting: flatten_matrix(Mat, Xs) :- dim(Mat, [M,N]), ( multifor([I,J], 1, [M,N]), foreach(X, Xs), param(Mat) do subscript(Mat, [I,J], X) ). % Same for an array of arbitrary dimension: flatten_array(Array, Xs) :- dim(Array, Dims), ( multifor(Idx, 1, Dims), foreach(X, Xs), param(Array) do subscript(Array, Idx, X) ). % Same but returns the elements in the reverse order: flatten_array(Array, Xs) :- dim(Array, Dims), ( multifor(Idx, Dims, 1, -1), foreach(X, Xs), param(Array) do subscript(Array, Idx, X) ). % Flatten nested lists one level (cf. flatten/2 which flattens completely): ?- List = [[a,b],[[c,d,e],[f]],[g]], (foreach(Xs,List) >> foreach(X,Xs), foreach(X,Ys) do true). % Iterate over all ordered pairs of integers 1..4 % (param(I) required to make I available in body of loop): ?- (for(I,1,4) >> (for(J,I+1,4), param(I)) do writeln(I-J)). % Same for general 1..N (param(N) required to make N available to second for): ?- N=4, ((for(I,1,N), param(N)) >> (for(J,I+1,N), param(I)) do writeln(I-J)). % Do-loop inside a Grammar Rule % This rule will accept/generate a list of integers from 1 to N intlist(N) --> ( for(I,1,N) do [I] ).